THE LAW OF MOSES & THE LAW OF CHRIST

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Outline

God established the law of Moses, the Old Covenant, in the Old Testament times; and the law of Christ, the New Covenant, established in the New Testament times. In this book, Christ Ahnsahnghong taught that the first through the fourth commandments for worshiping God in the Ten Commandments are fulfilled through the feasts of God. He also made known that those feasts were changed into the law of Christ, the New Covenant. He testified that the Church of God, which keeps the feasts of the New Covenant in this age, has fulfilled the prophecies of the Bible as the child of promise and receives the Holy Spirit of the latter rain.

Preface

The most important goal of studying the Bible is to realize how the precious blood of Christ gives us eternal life. Today, we study the law of Moses so that we may experience Christ’s love and understand God’s plan of salvation hidden from ages. It is God’s wisdom and providence to help us know the present through the past and the future through the present.

Through Abraham’s family, God showed the two covenants that were to come: Ishmael who was born of Hagar, the slave woman, represents the old covenant—the law of Moses from Mount Sinai (Jn 7:19), and Isaac who was born of Sarah, the free woman, represents the new covenant—the law of Christ from Zion. The law of Moses was a shadow of the law of Christ which was to come later—not the reality itself. So, God has opened a way, by which our darkened hearts that were under the law of Moses can become lightened and abide in the grace of Christ’s law.

When you study this book, you will hear the true voice of God; He leads the souls wandering in the darkness to the way of life and joy, and brings them into the kingdom of heaven which they have lost.

This book is a bound volume of several booklets written by Ahnsahnghong. We sincerely hope that you study this book diligently until the morning star rises in your hearts, so that you will share in the glorious throne of eternal life.

CONTENTS

  • Chapter 1 The Ten Commandments and the Law of the Letter
  • Chapter 2 The New Covenant and the Old Covenant
  • Chapter 3 The Regulations of the New Covenant
  • Chapter 4 The Tree of Life and the Ten Commandments
  • Chapter 5 The Old Covenant Has Been Changed Into the New Covenant
  • Chapter 6 The Heavenly Jerusalem and the Earthly Jerusalem
  • Chapter 7 The Order of Aaron and the Order of Melchizedek
  • Chapter 8 The Children of the Promise
  • Chapter 9 The Holy Spirit of the Latter Rain
  • Chapter 10 Biblical Teachings About Food

Chapter 1 The Ten Commandments and the Law of the Letter

What is the relationship between the Ten Commandments and the law of the letter which is also referred to as a schoolmaster (KJV) in the New Testament? When Moses received the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai, God said:

Ex 24:12 『“. . . I will give you the tablets of stone, with the law and commands I have written . . .”』

And when the Apostle Paul wrote to the Romans, he emphasized:

Ro 7:5-7 『For when we were controlled by the sinful nature, the sinful passions aroused by the law were at work in our bodies, so that we bore fruit for death. But now, by dying to what once bound us, we have been released from the law so that we serve in the new way of the Spirit, and not in the old way of the written code. What shall we say, then? Is the law sin? Certainly not! Indeed I would not have known what sin was except through the law. For I would not have known what coveting really was if the law had not said, “Do not covet.”』

As stated above, the law, the commands and the written code [the law of the letter] are all the same. And it is written:

2 Co 3:6-7 『He has made us competent as ministers of a new covenant—not of the letter but of the Spirit; for the letter kills, but the Spirit gives life. Now if the ministry that brought death, which was engraved in letters on stone, . . .』

Eph 2:15 『by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. . . .』

Heb 7:16 『one who has become a priest not on the basis of a regulation as to his ancestry . . .』

Heb 7:18-19 『The former regulation is set aside because it was weak and useless (for the law made nothing perfect), . . .』

These verses show that the Ten Commandments, engraved on stone, contain some regulations of the letter.

Studying the above-mentioned verses carefully, it is certain that the Ten Commandments are included in the law of the letter. In conclusion, the law of the letter contains the Ten Commandments. And the old covenant, containing the Ten Commandments, has been completely changed into the new covenant (Heb 7:12).

The Ten Commandments and the Feasts

In the law of Moses, the Ten Commandments are called the covenant, and the feasts are also called the covenant. When God proclaimed all the laws to Moses who was staying on Mount Sinai for forty days to receive the Ten Commandments a second time, God spoke of the seven feasts in three times and established a covenant in accordance with the meaning of the feasts, and He gave Moses the stone tablets of the covenant (Ex 34:18-28).

Ex 34:27-28 『Then the LORD said to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words [in accordance with the seven feasts in three times] I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.” Moses was there with the LORD forty days and forty nights without eating bread or drinking water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant—the Ten Commandments.』

Dt 4:13-14 『He declared to you his covenant, the Ten Commandments, which he commanded you to follow and then wrote them on two stone tablets. And the LORD directed me at that time to teach you the decrees and laws you are to follow in the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess.』

Dt 5:2-3 『The LORD our God made a covenant with us at Horeb. It was not with our fathers that the LORD made this covenant, but with us, with all of us who are alive here today.』

In the book of 2 Kings, it is written that the Israelites kept the Passover in accordance with the words of the covenant (2 Ki 23:1-3, 21-23). The Apostle Paul wrote to the Hebrews:

Heb 9:1-7 『Now the first covenant had regulations for worship and also an earthly sanctuary. . . .』

When Paul mentioned the feast, the Day of Atonement, he said, “The first covenant had regulations for worship.” Therefore, the Ten Commandments are the words of the covenant; the first four commandments are the covenant for the worship of God alone. It is only through the feasts that we can remain faithful to God. To be exact, the Ten Commandments, the feasts and the sanctuary are one system; they are inseparable from one another. As it is written:

Isa 33:20 『Look upon Zion, the city of our festivals; . . .』

Heb 9:1 『Now the first covenant had regulations for worship and also an earthly sanctuary.』

Heb 9:18-20 『This is why even the first covenant was not put into effect without blood. When Moses had proclaimed every commandment of the law to all the people, he took the blood of calves, together with water, scarlet wool and branches of hyssop, and sprinkled the scroll and all the people. He said, “This is the blood of the covenant, which God has commanded you to keep.”』

Since there were the Ten Commandments, the sanctuary was built; and the feasts were established because there was the sanctuary.

The great days of the LORD mean the feasts (cf. Lev 16:29-31; Jn 7:37; 19:31). When the ancient Israelites violated the covenant, they were cursed (Isa 24:1-5). And when they paid attention to the feasts and kept them, they were blessed.

The Commandments five through ten deal with human relations. So, we cannot become faithful to God by keeping only these laws; they are just for maintaining a good relationship among people, not for God’s benefit (Job 35:6-8). Those who think that the Ten Commandments are different from the feasts show that they are not able to distinguish between the old covenant and the new covenant.

Some insist that the Ten Commandments, put into the ark of the covenant (Dt 31:24-26), will endure forever, while the Book of the Law beside the ark was abolished by the cross.

Then, we need to study the relationship between the Ten Commandments and the Book of the Law. The Book of the Law, which was instructed to be placed beside the ark, indicates the book of Deuteronomy, including Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers. The words in the book of Deuteronomy were expounded and written in the presence of the whole assembly of Israel in the territory of Moab, on the first day of the eleventh month in the fortieth year after the Israelites came out of Egypt, just before they entered the land of Canaan (cf. Dt 1:1-5; 27:11; 31:22-26).

The book of Deuteronomy contains the Ten Commandments with their detailed explanations (cf. Dt 4:12-14; 5:1-21; 29:1), the law of food and the law of tithe (Dt 14:3-21, 22-23). So, if anyone says that the Book of the Law, which contains the Ten Commandments, was abolished, that person is the one who insists that the Ten Commandments were abolished along with the law of food and the law of tithe; for the book of Deuteronomy contains the Ten Commandments, the law of tithe and the law of food, its abolition means the abolition of all those laws. The Book of the Law was placed beside the ark because it included the detailed explanations of the Ten Commandments. The following are some of the Ten Commandments and their explanations.

The Commandments for Men

Ex 20:12 『Honor your father and your mother . . .』

Concerning this commandment, the Book of the Law writes in detail as follows:

Ex 21:15 『Anyone who attacks his father or his mother must be put to death.』

Ex 21:17 『Anyone who curses his father or mother must be put to death.』

Dt 21:18-21 『If a man has a stubborn and rebellious son who does not obey his father and mother and will not listen to them when they discipline him, his father and mother shall take hold of him and bring him to the elders at the gate of his town. They shall say to the elders, “This son of ours is stubborn and rebellious. He will not obey us. He is a profligate and a drunkard.” Then all the men of his town shall stone him to death. You must purge the evil from among you. . . .』

Dt 27:16 『“Cursed is the man who dishonors his father or his mother.” Then all the people shall say, “Amen!”』

Dt 5:17 『You shall not murder.』

Concerning this commandment, it is written:

Ex 21:12-14 『Anyone who strikes a man and kills him shall surely be put to death. However, if he does not do it intentionally, but God lets it happen, he is to flee to a place I will designate. But if a man schemes and kills another man deliberately, take him away from my altar and put him to death.』

Ex 22:2-3 『If a thief is caught breaking in and is struck so that he dies, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed; but if it happens after sunrise, he is guilty of bloodshed. . . .』

Dt 19:4-6 『This is the rule concerning the man who kills another and flees there to save his life—one who kills his neighbor unintentionally, without malice aforethought. . . .』

Dt 5:18 『You shall not commit adultery.』

Concerning this commandment, it is written:

Lev 20:10-22 『If a man commits adultery with another man’s wife—with the wife of his neighbor—both the adulterer and the adulteress must be put to death. If a man sleeps with his father’s wife, he has dishonored his father. Both the man and the woman must be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads. If a man sleeps with his daughter-in-law, both of them must be put to death. What they have done is a perversion . . .』

Dt 22:23-30 『If a man happens to meet in a town a virgin pledged to be married and he sleeps with her, you shall take both of them to the gate of that town and stone them to death . . .』

Besides these words, there are more explanations about adultery.

Dt 5:19 『You shall not steal.』

Concerning this commandment, it is written:

Ex 22:1-9 『If a man steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it, he must pay back five head of cattle for the ox . . . A thief must certainly make restitution, but if he has nothing, he must be sold to pay for his theft.』

Dt 24:7 『If a man is caught kidnapping one of his brother Israelites and treats him as a slave or sells him, the kidnapper must die. You must purge the evil from among you.』

Besides these words, the books of Moses contain a lot of detailed explanations regarding the commandment against theft (Dt 24:10-22; 28:1-68).

The First Commandment and Its Explanations

As the detailed explanations of the commandments for men are written in the Book of the Law, so the commandments for worshiping God are written in it. The Ten Commandments given to Moses were engraved on two stone tablets (Ex 32:15-16; 34:28-29): On one tablet were written the first through the fourth commandments for worshiping God, and on the other the fifth through the tenth commandments for men. The first four commandments are called the commandments about God, because all the feasts including the Sabbath are the commands for worshiping the one and only God in the sanctuary, according to their regulations.

Then, what is the practical way to keep the first commandment?

The Bible says, “You shall have no other gods before me” (Ex 20:3). This includes two commands: “Worship no other gods” and “Worship only Me.”

The only way to worship God without serving any other gods is offering the Passover sacrifice, because the Passover is the day of deliverance from Egypt, the land of slavery and death.

The first commandment, “You shall have no other gods before me,” is not an autocratic demand of God. There is a certain reason for giving this command. God brought His people out of Egypt, the land of slavery, and commanded them to commemorate the day of redemption as a feast to the LORD—a lasting ordinance, for the generations to come (Ex 13:3-10; 12:17).

Therefore, God begins the first commandment and the Passover with the same words: “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery. You shall have no other gods before me” (Dt 5:6-7; Ex 20:2-3). While mentioning the Passover, God also said, “Commemorate this day, the day you came out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery . . .” (cf. Ex 13:3-10; 12:17; Dt 16:1-17). This word implies that ‘I [God] brought you out of Egypt, the land of slavery, through the blood of My sacrifice. Am I not your Redeemer? So, do not worship any gods except Me by commemorating the day when I delivered you.’

There are not many people who completely understand the first commandment. It contains the greatest mystery of God. Most ordinary people simply know what the first commandment is, but do not understand the principle of it. That’s why when one expert in the law tested Jesus, he asked Him a question like this: “If you are truly a prophet, do you know what the greatest commandment is?”

Mt 22:35-40 『One of them, an expert in the law, tested him with this question: “Teacher, which is the greatest commandment in the Law?” Jesus replied: “ ‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.’ This is the first and greatest commandment. . . .”』

Studying all the records of the prophets, we can see that there was no king like Josiah who loved God with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his mind in full observance of the first commandment.

2 Ki 23:25 『Neither before nor after Josiah was there a king like him who turned to the LORD as he did—with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength, in accordance with all the Law of Moses.』

It is written that King Josiah observed all the Law of Moses. His greatest achievement was observing the Passover, the first commandment, with all his heart and with all his soul and with all his strength. As it is written:

2 Ki 23:21-25 『The king gave this order to all the people: “Celebrate the Passover to the LORD your God, as it is written in this Book of the Covenant.” Not since the days of the judges who led Israel, nor throughout the days of the kings of Israel and the kings of Judah, had any such Passover been observed. But in the eighteenth year of King Josiah, this Passover was celebrated to the LORD in Jerusalem. . . .』

As seen in the works of King Josiah, to keep the Passover is the first commandment of God. To this fact Jesus testified. He said, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind” (Mt 22:37-38; cf. 2 Ki 23:21-25), referring to the Passover.

When Moses explained the Passover in the presence of the whole assembly of Israel, he said:

Dt 6:4-9 『Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength. These commandments that I give you today are to be upon your hearts. Impress them on your children. Talk about them when you sit at home and when you walk along the road, when you lie down and when you get up. Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your foreheads. Write them on the doorframes of your houses and on your gates.』

The words, “Tie them as symbols on your hands and bind them on your heads,” refer to the observance of the Passover. As it is written:

Ex 13:9-10 『This observance [Passover] will be for you like a sign on your hand and a reminder on your forehead that the law of the LORD is to be on your lips For the LORD brought you out of Egypt with his mighty hand. You must keep this ordinance at the appointed time year after year.』

So the word, “Love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength,” is equivalent to the observance of the Passover.

The Passover Is the Day of Judgment Against All the Gods

When we carefully study the words, “You shall have no other gods before me,” we come to understand that the first commandment refers to the observance of the Passover. By celebrating the Passover, we no longer worship other gods but God who brought us out of Egypt, the land of slavery. This is because all other gods are destroyed when we keep the Passover, and unless we keep it we become unknowingly infiltrated by the other gods.

Ex 12:12; Nu 33:4 『“On that same night I will pass through Egypt and strike down every firstborn—both men and animals—and I will bring judgment on all the gods of Egypt. I am the LORD.”』

Some may think that the word, “I will bring judgment on all the gods,” refers only to the time of the Exodus. However, it applies at all times. When the Israelites didn’t keep the Passover, they worshiped other gods, building high places and Asherah poles, and there were many more mediums and spiritists. However, when they kept the Passover again, being admonished by prophets sent by God, they destroyed all other gods and idols, mediums and spiritists.

Even in the times of King Hezekiah and King Josiah, the whole land was filled with idols because the Passover had not been celebrated for a long time. When they kept the Passover again, their eyes were opened, so they could see that all the towns of Judah and Jerusalem were filled with mediums and spiritists, household gods, idols and all the other detestable things, and they destroyed them all (2 Ki 23:21-24; 2 Ch 30:1-5; 31:1). Also, after keeping the Passover, the priests prayed for the people, and their prayer reached heaven. As it is written:

2 Ch 30:27 『The priests and the Levites stood to bless the people, and God heard them, for their prayer reached heaven, his holy dwelling place.』

Even King Hezekiah and King Josiah worshiped idols when they did not keep the Passover. But after keeping the Passover, they destroyed all the idols, for God had already appointed the Passover of the Exodus as the “day of judgment against idols.” Through all ages, whenever God’s people keep the Passover, the other gods are judged and destroyed; but when they do not celebrate it, they come to worship them unknowingly.

When Jeroboam, king of Israel, prohibited the people from celebrating the feasts of God, he made two golden calves: One he set up in Bethel, and the other in Dan. He said to the people, “It is too much for you to go up to Jerusalem. Here are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt” (1 Ki 12:25-33).

These golden calves, idols and high places, made by King Jeroboam in about 975 B.C. to prohibit the people from celebrating God’s feasts, had been worshiped for about 300 years until King Josiah. When King Josiah read the Book of the Law which had been found in the temple, he recognized the Passover and got rid of the idols, altars and high places (2 Ki 22:1-20; 23:15-20), and after keeping the Passover he completely destroyed the remaining idols and mediums (2 Ki 23:21-24).

Even today, people put aside the day Jesus established the new covenant and set up another day to celebrate, just as King Jeroboam set up idols and appointed a feast on another day. Concerning this, the prophet Ezekiel wrote:

Eze 11:12 『“And you will know that I am the LORD, for you have not followed my decrees or kept my laws but have conformed to the standards of the nations around you.”』

Both in the past and the present, when people do not keep God’s laws, they ultimately come to observe other rules—the ordinances of the Gentiles. So, unless they celebrate the Passover established by God at the appointed time, they come to worship other gods.

Some insist that the Passover only applies to the natural Israelites, saying that it was abolished by the cross. In the Old Testament times, those who didn’t keep the Passover thought that it was necessary to celebrate the Passover only at the time of the Exodus, insisting on finding a better way to worship God, and they made idols and worshiped them. Even now, people come to think that way unless they understand the principle of redemption. However, the Passover is available not only for the natural Israelites but it is also the day of redemption for the spiritual Israelites throughout the world.

The Passover, through which the natural Israelites came out of Egypt and entered Canaan, has indeed been established for the spiritual Israelites rather than for the perishable physical ones. The Passover night was called the “night of the LORD” (Ex 12:42, KJV).

The Passover that was kept in Egypt is a shadow, and its reality is the Passover celebrated by Jesus and His disciples as the new command, the new covenant (Lk 22:20; Heb 9:15). It is the day when Jesus redeemed His people throughout the world from their slavery to sin. By celebrating this day, we come to worship no other gods except Jesus, our Redeemer. The Passover was not abolished but rather illuminated by the cross.

Some say that because the feasts were regarded as important in the Old Testament times, the Passover could be considered as the first commandment in those days, and they insist that it was abolished by the cross in the New Testament times. However, the Passover must be the first commandment in the New Testament, too, just as it was in the Old Testament. It is because the Old Testament is a shadow, and the New Testament is its reality.

The Second Commandment and Its Explanations

The second commandment says, “You shall not make for yourself an idol …” (Dt 5:8-10).

Dt 4:15-19 『“You saw no form of any kind the day the LORD spoke to you at Horeb out of the fire. Therefore watch yourselves very carefully, so that you do not become corrupt and make for yourselves an idol, an image of any shape, . . .”』

Ex 20:22-24 『“ ‘You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven: Do not make any gods to be alongside me; do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold. Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings, your sheep and goats and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you.’ ”』 All these words are written in the Book of the Law placed beside the ark.

The second commandment, “You shall not make an idol,” is violated not only by making idols, but also by breaking the first commandment as we see in the case of Jeroboam, who made idols and worshiped them when he violated the first commandment.

Thus, idolatry is not only the making of any image that is to be an object of worship, but also the making of other laws against God’s true ones; God has appointed the Sabbath, so keeping Sunday as the Sabbath is making an idol of the Sabbath.

The Third Commandment and Its Explanations

The third commandment, “You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God” (Dt 5:11), cannot be obeyed by merely not misusing God’s name. This commandment implies that we must not misuse the name of God but use His name reverently. Let’s study the matter on how one misuses God’s name and how one uses it holily. As it is written:

2 Ch 2:4 『“Now I am about to build a temple for the Name of the LORD my God and to dedicate it to him for burning fragrant incense before him, . . .”』

1 Ki 8:30, 34-36 『“Hear the supplication of your servant and of your people Israel when they pray toward this place [temple]. Hear from heaven, your dwelling place, and when you hear, forgive . . . then hear from heaven . . .”』

1 Ki 9:3 『“. . . I have consecrated this temple, which you have built, by putting my Name there forever. . . .”』

Ex 20:24 『“ ‘. . . Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you.’ ”』

The place where the LORD put His name was the temple. Only in the temple, people called upon the name of the LORD and revered His name according to His regulations. If a man does not follow God’s laws but men’s, saying, “This is the week of prayer for the forgiveness of sins committed in a year,” “This day is the Sabbath,” or if he holds the Passover ceremony in his own way, saying, “This bread and wine is the body and blood of Jesus,” he commits an act of misusing the name of God and profaning Him as well. As it is written:

Dt 16:1-6 『. . . except in the place he will choose as a dwelling for his Name. There you must sacrifice the Passover in the evening, when the sun goes down, on the anniversary of your departure from Egypt.』

If we sanctify the name of the LORD by celebrating the Holy Supper on the very day Jesus established the new covenant, how greatly God will be pleased!

The third commandment is broken when we violate the first commandment. In other words, if one keeps Sunday service, praying aloud, “This day is the holy Sabbath of the LORD,” he commits the act of making an idol and of misusing the name of the LORD as well. However, it doesn’t matter if Sabbath-keepers worship on Sunday.

Likewise, if a man celebrates the Holy Supper on the day Jesus established the new covenant, he may also hold it in ordinary times; in this case, he neither commits idolatry nor profanes God’s name. The detailed explanations of the third commandment are also contained in the Book of the Law placed beside the ark.

The Fourth Commandment and Its Explanations

The Bible says, “Observe the Sabbath day by keeping it holy, as the LORD your God has commanded you” (Dt 5:12-14), implying that the Sabbath is a memorial day of the Creator, as it is written: “For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy” (Ex 20:11).

The ancient regulations regarding the Sabbath were as follows:

Nu 28:9-10 『On the Sabbath day, make an offering of two lambs a year old without defect, together with its drink offering and a grain offering of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil. This is the burnt offering for every Sabbath, . . .』

And it is also written: “This bread is to be set out before the LORD regularly, Sabbath after Sabbath, on behalf of the Israelites, as a lasting covenant” (cf. Lev 24:5-8; 1 Chr. 9:32; 23:31; 2 Ch 2:4; Eze 46:4).

According to the Law of Moses, the Sabbath was called a feast because some ceremonial regulations were held on the Sabbath.

Lev 23:2-3 『“Speak to the Israelites and say to them: ‘These are my appointed feasts, the appointed feasts of the LORD, which you are to proclaim as sacred assemblies. There are six days when you may work, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a day of sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; wherever you live, it is a Sabbath to the LORD.’ ”』

The Sabbath of the fourth commandment was called a feast because the morning and evening burnt offerings, the bread of the Presence and the drink offerings were presented to the LORD at the sanctuary according to the Sabbath regulations. And in regard to the violation of the Sabbath, it is written:

Ex 35:2-3 『“. . . Do not light a fire in any of your dwellings on the Sabbath day.”』

Ex 31:15 『“. . . Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must be put to death.”』

Nu 15:32-36 『While the Israelites were in the desert, a man was found gathering wood on the Sabbath day. . . . “The man must die. The whole assembly must stone him outside the camp.” . . .』

All these words and the detailed explanations concerning the Sabbath are written in the Book of the Law placed beside the ark.

Chapter 2 The New Covenant and the Old Covenant

The Holy Bible is composed of the Old and New Testaments; the Old Testament means the old covenant, and the New Testament means the new covenant. It is the common opinion among Christians that the Old Testament, the old covenant, was abolished by the cross and the New Testament, the new covenant, is to be kept. If we take the Old Testament teaching literally and observe it, we come to fall away from the grace of Christ. Therefore, we should find out what the New Testament—the new covenant—teaches, so that we may follow it.

Jesus is the criterion for judging all doctrines. He is our Teacher and our Savior, and all His teachings and practices must be obeyed. We should follow the examples of the apostles who were taught directly by Jesus. If anyone ignores their teachings and arrogantly adds his opinion, he commits heresy. As it is written:

Gal 1:6-9 『. . . But even if we or an angel from heaven should preach a gospel other than the one we preached to you, let him be eternally condemned! . . . so now I say again: If anybody is preaching to you a gospel other than what you accepted, let him be eternally condemned!』

As time passed, the truths began to be changed one after another. Just as Jesus prophesied that an enemy, the devil, would sow weeds after He sowed the good seed—the gospel of the kingdom (Mt 13:24-30), the truths of life began to be obscured after the Apostolic Age. In A.D. 167 the Passover was changed to another day; the Vatican, which possessed ecclesiastical supremacy, and Dr. Kidd passed a verdict of heresy against those who celebrated the Holy Supper on the fourteenth day of the first month [Nisan] according to the sacred calendar (“A History of the Early Church to A.D. 500,” p. 83).

After that, Satan began to greatly increase his activities. Finally, he changed the Sabbath in A.D. 321, after he changed the Passover in A.D. 167. But God’s truths cannot remain trampled by Satan forever. According to the prophecies, the light of the truth began to reappear; Luther restored the freedom of faith; the Baptist Church and the Seventh-day Adventist Church restored baptism and the Sabbath respectively. Now, there remains the last one. It is the Holy Supper of the Passover, which leads to life. We should completely reveal the Passover and preach the last truth to all who seek the truth of life, so that we may prepare the way for the coming of Jesus, be washed in the blood of the Passover Lamb and enter eternal life.

It is not a new message that I deliver now, but the gospel taught by Jesus and preached by the apostles. As it is written:

Php 4:9 『Whatever you have learned or received or heard from me, or seen in me—put it into practice. And the God of peace will be with you.』

1 Co 11:23-26 『For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you: The Lord Jesus, on the night he was betrayed, took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me.” For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes.』(cf. Lk 22:7-20)

The Passover is the core subject of the new covenant. Jesus and the Apostle Paul called the Passover the “new covenant.”

Chapter 3 The Regulations of the New Covenant

The new covenant fulfills the old covenant; the old regulations of the letter were changed into the regulations of the Spirit. As it is written:

1 Co 5:7-8 『. . . For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. Therefore let us keep the Festival, . . .』

Heb 7:12 『For when there is a change of the priesthood, there must also be a change of the law.』

The ministry of the letter has been changed into the ministry of the Spirit. Jesus Christ chose the Passover celebrated at the time of the Exodus in order to help us remember our deliverance from this sinful world [Egypt], and He established the new covenant through the Holy Supper of the Passover with His disciples (cf. Lk 22:7-13, 19-20; Ex 13:8-10).

Jesus gave us the regulations of the new covenant, through which our bodies are purified to become the “temple of the Holy Spirit”; we are to celebrate the Passover by eating bread representing His body instead of eating a lamb, and by drinking wine representing His blood instead of sprinkling the lamb’s blood on the altar and on the people. So, we should commemorate this day and proclaim it (cf. 1 Co 11:23-26; Lk 22:15-20; Jn 6:53-55).

If the Passover didn’t have to be celebrated on the appointed day, Jesus would have set an example by celebrating it on any day. However, He set an example by waiting for the Passover and saying that He had eagerly desired to eat the Passover. Jesus could not fulfill His works without the Passover, so He waited for that day and celebrated the Passover with His disciples, saying, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer” (Lk 22:15). Therefore, its ceremony is described as the festival of eating the Passover (Lk 22:8-15; Mt 26:17; Mk 14:12-14).

The Passover lamb had been sacrificed on the fourteenth day of the first month of the sacred year over a period of 1,500 years, and on the same day of the same month, Jesus ate the Passover with His disciples and appointed this feast as a memorial day of His death as the Lamb of God taking away the sins of the world. Jesus Christ sealed the new covenant with the sacrifice of atonement on the Holy Supper of the Passover.

The Passover bread becomes Jesus’ body crucified on the cross, and the Passover wine becomes His precious blood shed on the cross. The Passover ceremony clearly shows us His great atoning love for us.

Jesus spoke great things concerning the Passover as follows:

Lk 22:19-20 『And he took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body given for you; do this in remembrance of me.” In the same way, after the supper he took the cup, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you.”』

Jn 6:53-56 『Jesus said to them, “I tell you the truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in you. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For my flesh is real food and my blood is real drink. Whoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood remains in me, and I in him.”』

The above words show that Jesus, the Passover Lamb, sealed the Holy Supper of the Passover with His body that would be crucified and His precious blood that would be shed on the cross. Through the Passover, we come to remain in Jesus and have eternal life, so that we will be raised up at the last day according to His promise.

Taking the cup, Jesus said, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you” (Lk 22:20), and He gave a detailed explanation of the wine as follows:

Jn 15:5 『“I am the vine; you are the branches. If a man remains in me and I in him, he will bear much fruit; apart from me you can do nothing.”』

These words were spoken at the Last Supper. Through the great work of atonement, Jesus established the new covenant at the Holy Supper of the Passover and said:

Jn 13:34 『“A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another.”』

Jn 15:12 『My command is this: Love each other as I have loved you.』

Jn 13:13-15 『“You call me ‘Teacher’ and ‘Lord,’ and rightly so, for that is what I am. Now that I, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also should wash one another’s feet. I have set you an example that you should do as I have done for you.”』

The words, “A new command I give you” (Jn 13:34), are the same as the words, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is poured out for you” (Lk 22:20). In the Synoptic Gospels it is written “the new covenant” or “the covenant” instead of “a new command,” and in the book of John “a new command” instead of “the new covenant” (Jn 13:34; 15:10-12). This new covenant, the new command, is a memorial day of our Redeemer. It is the Passover, through which we love Jesus and love one another in Him as He has loved us.

1 Co 10:16-17 『Is not the cup of thanksgiving for which we give thanks a participation in the blood of Christ? And is not the bread that we break a participation in the body of Christ? Because there is one loaf, we, who are many, are one body, for we all partake of the one loaf.』

Through the Passover ceremony, we love one another and become one body in Jesus. No one hates his own body, so if we become one in Jesus, we will love our brothers as we love ourselves.

The Passover and the Last Supper

Some insist that Jesus did not celebrate the Last Supper on the day of the Passover, but on the day before the Passover, the thirteenth day of the first month at evening. However, in the three Gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke Jesus clearly said to His disciples, “Prepare the Passover” or “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you” (cf. Mt 26:17; Mk 14:12; Lk 22:7-8, 13-14). Who can deny the words spoken by Jesus Himself?

They also insist that it was on the day of the Passover that Jesus was hung on the cross, saying that He must be crucified on the day when the Passover lamb was to be sacrificed because He was the Passover Lamb. Such an interpretation shows that they know neither the feasts related to Jesus’ administration of redemption nor the prophecies fulfilled by Jesus, who is the reality of the sacrifices. In the light of prophetic fulfillment, the atonement offering is greater than the Passover lamb. The atonement offering was to be sacrificed on the tenth day of the seventh month of the sacred year (cf. Heb 13:11-12; Lev 16:27-34). Then, since Jesus became the atonement offering, too, He should have been sacrificed on the cross even on the Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month, shouldn’t He?

Actually, Jesus became all the sacrifices of the feasts; He became the regular burnt offering each day (Ex 29:38-39), the lamb offered on the Sabbath day (Nu 28:9-10), the Passover lamb (1 Co 5:7-8) and the atonement offering. For the fulfillment of the prophecy, Jesus must be sacrificed on the fifteenth day of the first month of the sacred year.

The Passover was the greatest festival of the Jews, and they didn’t hand criminals over to be crucified on the Passover. In the Apostolic age, when the Apostle Peter was kept in prison, the Passover came and they waited until it was over. It was on the Passover night that an angel of the Lord rescued Peter from prison (Ac 12:1-10). But the Feast of Unleavened Bread, beginning on the fifteenth day of the first month of the sacred year, was the day on which the Israelites left Egypt (Nu 33:3) while the Egyptians buried their firstborns (Nu 33:4). So, it was customary for the Jews to crucify criminals on this day. By bearing a curse on the cross, Jesus redeemed us from the curse. As it is written:

Gal 3:13 『Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: “Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.”』 (cf. Dt 21:22-23)

If we carefully study many verses in the Bible, we come to understand that Jesus was crucified on the day of Unleavened Bread, the day after the Passover. Therefore, it was on the fourteenth day of the first month at twilight, when the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed, that Jesus ate the last Passover. As it is written:

Mk 14:12 『On the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, when it was customary to sacrifice the Passover lamb, Jesus’ disciples asked him, “Where do you want us to go and make preparations for you to eat the Passover?”』

The Old Testament Passover Is a Shadow of the New Testament Passover

Now let’s trace the history of the Passover celebrated by the Israelites. They kept the Passover for the first time in Egypt and came out of there (Ex 12:12-42); in the second year after the Exodus, they celebrated it in the desert after the tabernacle was set up (cf. Ex 40:1-25; Nu 9:1-14); at the end of the 40 years in the desert, they kept the Passover at Gilgal on the plains of Jericho, just before they entered the land of Canaan (Jos 5:10-15). However, after they entered Canaan, they did not celebrate it and began worshiping idols. In the days of King Josiah and King Hezekiah, they kept the Passover again after being advised by prophets, and destroyed all the idols (cf. 2 Ki 23:1-25; 2 Ch 30:1-27; 31:1). After returning from the Babylonian Captivity, they built the temple and kept the Passover holy (Ezr 6:14-22). Jesus kept the Passover of the new covenant with His disciples (cf. Lk 22:7-20; 1 Co 11:23-26). Thus, God’s will was revealed through the Passover whenever His great works were accomplished.

The Passover of the Old Testament is a shadow, and the significant meaning of its reality is in the gospel age. If we fully understand the profound principle of the relationship between the reflection and its reality, we will find out what Jesus’ work of redemption is. In summary, what happened to the Israelites during their 40 years in the desert after the Exodus showed what would take place during a 2,000-year period of the gospel age. Excluding the details of the 40 years in the desert, let’s focus on the subject of the Passover.

The Passover celebrated at the time of the Exodus is a shadow, and its reality is the Passover of the Last Supper that Jesus celebrated with His disciples; the Passover kept in the Desert of Sinai in the second year after the Exodus (Nu 9:1-14) is a shadow, and its reality is the Passover of the new covenant celebrated by the apostles after Jesus’ ascension; the Passover kept at Gilgal on the plains of Jericho just before the entrance into Canaan at the end of the 40 years in the desert is a shadow, and its reality is the Passover that the remnant are to celebrate in preparation for entering the heavenly Canaan at the end of the gospel age.

Moses led the natural Israelites out of Egypt and into the desert through the Passover celebrated in Egypt, and as the reality Jesus led the spiritual Israelites into the desert of faith by celebrating the last Passover with His disciples and carrying the cross.

The Passover Exposes a Home for Demons

Concerning the appearance of the truth which exposes a home for demons and a haunt for unclean spirits, the Apostle John wrote as follows:

Rev 18:1-3 『After this I saw another angel coming down from heaven. He had great authority, and the earth was illuminated by his splendor. With a mighty voice he shouted “Fallen! Fallen is Babylon the Great! She has become a home for demons and a haunt for every evil spirit, a haunt for every unclean and detestable bird. . . .”』

“The earth was illuminated by his splendor.” His splendor means a light by which the home for demons and the haunt for unclean and detestable spirits are exposed.

Even King Josiah had worshiped every demon and Baal for 18 years, not knowing that God’s temple had become a home for demons and a haunt for unclean and detestable spirits. However, when he decided to keep the Passover, he was able to see that God’s temple had been turned into a home for demons and he immediately destroyed all the demons (2 Ki 23:1-7); and after celebrating the Passover, he got rid of the mediums and spiritists, the household gods, the idols and all the other destestable things in every town (2 Ki 23:21-25).

The splendor in Rev 18:1-3 is the light of the truth of the Passover through Jesus’ precious blood shed on the cross. If we realize this truth, we will find the home for demons as if we see it with our own eyes. Through all ages, when people keep the Passover, all the other gods are destroyed and they come to worship only God, by which the first commandment is obeyed. It is the same now. When you realize the Passover and keep it, your spiritual eyes will be opened and you will recognize not only the idols which you may have served unknowingly but also the idols in the churches, and you will abhor them. So, it is the Passover that Satan hates most.

Both in the past and the present, he makes every effort to abolish the Passover, because God appointed it as the day of judgment against all the other gods at the time of the Exodus. If we celebrate the Passover every year, no other gods can invade us.

Jesus celebrated the last Passover and offered the new covenant to His disciples, giving them His body and blood that would be hung and shed on the cross, by which Satan’s sovereignty would be taken away. So, if we keep the regulations of the new covenant, Satan will be destroyed; if we do not, he will exercise ecclesiastical power and suppress us, God’s people, so that we can neither remember the Day of our Redeemer nor be saved.

Moses warned against false prophets who would appear after his death, in the presence of the whole assembly of Israel. As it is written:

Dt 13:5 『That prophet or dreamer must be put to death, because he preached rebellion against the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt and redeemed you from the land of slavery; he has tried to turn you from the way the LORD your God commanded you to follow. You must purge the evil from among you.』

“That prophet or dreamer” indicates the one who rebels against the LORD God who redeemed His people from Egypt, the land of slavery. In other words, such rebellious prophet or dreamer indicates the person who hinders people from celebrating the Passover.

In the gospel age, the Apostle Peter gave a warning against false prophets who would appear as follows:

2 Pe 2:1 『But there were also false prophets among the people, just as there will be false teachers among you. They will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the sovereign Lord who bought them—bringing swift destruction on themselves.』

“False prophets denying the Lord who bought them” indicate those who forsake the Passover which Jesus established through His great work of atonement. Concerning this, the Apostle Paul wrote: “How much more severely do you think a man deserves to be punished who has trampled the Son of God under foot, who has treated as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified him, and who has insulted the Spirit of grace?” (Heb 10:29).

“A man who treats as an unholy thing the blood of the covenant that sanctified him” indicates the one who treats the Holy Supper of the Passover as an unholy thing. Even now, Satan uses every trap to hinder God’s people from remembering the Day of the Redeemer who sanctifies them with the blood of the new covenant, so that he may hold his power which was taken away through the cross. By doing that, he purposes that God’s people can neither realize the mediating work of Jesus the High Priest in the heavenly sanctuary nor communicate with Him.

Satan devises all kinds of wicked plans to make our minds preoccupied with other things of no importance, so that we cannot think of what we ought to know and pay attention to most of all. This ringleader of deceivers hates the great truth which shows the sacrifice for atonement and the duty of our Mediator the Almighty.

The earthly sanctuary is a shadow of the heavenly one. Jesus Christ prays for His people on earth in the days of the seven feasts in three times (Heb 7:25; Ro 8:26-27, 34; Isa 53:12). Those who understand this truth and put it into practice are able to communicate with Jesus, who turns the hearts of the children on earth to their heavenly Father and makes them understand His heart.

Therefore, the Passover is indeed a profound and amazing truth of life. When we celebrate the Passover of the new covenant, we are redeemed from this sinful world through the blood of Jesus, we come to keep the first commandment by worshiping God alone because all the other gods are destroyed, and we have the right to the tree of life and to the holy city by the blood of the Passover Lamb. And finally it becomes a mark with which we can escape the last seven plagues (Heb 10:19-20; Ex 12:13-14; Eze 9:4-7; Rev 7:14; 22:14).

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